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Voorne

The isle of Voorne is located south of Hoek van Holland. The strategic importance of the isle is clear through the number of St bunkers built here. On Voorne there were three coastal batteries: Battery Rockanje, Helvoet and Oostvoorne. Batteries Rockanje and Helvoet were moved during the war, their new location was approximately 1 kilometer north, seen from their old places. This was done due to the importance of the ability to fire inland. A Nachtjagd radar Stützpunkt, the "Biber stellung", Stp XXIII HL was erected near Oostvoorne. This large complex housed several St bunkers, for example a type L 487 and the rare L 481. The last mentioned was a bunker for the "Adcock" system, a guiding system. A Wassermann Schwer Stellung which served as early warning system was located between Rockanje and Oostvoorne. The Wassermann antenna was replaced by a Klein-Heidelberg radar system later in the war. This system could not be jammed by the allied forces because it could only recieve British radar waves and did not send out any signals itself. A compact square shaped strongpoint, Wn 104H "Heesterhof", was built for infantery reserves. The battalion headquarters was located in between Rockanje and Oostvoorne. One can find some rare Westwall Regelbauten here. The Germans were about to build a Landfront from Brielle to Hellevoetsluis. This defence line was never realised due to the ending of the war in 1945. In 1944 Battery Oostvoorne and Stp XXIIH became Stützpunktgruppe Oostvoorne and in 1945 the whole island was designated as Stützpunktgruppe Voorne. All the coastal batteries were demolished in the 1950s, 60s and 70s because the bunkers weakened the strength of the dunes and thus were a danger in relation to major floods like the one in 1953. Most of the other defences still remain although heavily obscured by newly planted vegetation.

There are two excellent books on this region by Jeroen Rijpsma: Bunkers op Voorne (1999) and Radarstelling Biber (2005). Thanks to Dominic Wijnolst for extra information.